RNAsnoop − manual page for RNAsnoop 2.4.11
Find targets of a query H/ACA snoRNA
reads a target RNA sequence and a H/ACA snoRNA sequence from a target and query file, respectively and computes optimal and suboptimal secondary structures for their hybridization. The calculation can be done roughly in O(nm), where is n the length of the target sequence and m is the length of the snoRNA stem, as it is specially tailored to the special case of H/ACA snoRNA. For general purpose target predictions, please have a look at RNAduplex, RNAup, RNAcofold and RNAplex. Accessibility effects can be estimated by RNAsnoop if a RNAplfold accessibility profile is provided.
The computed optimal and suboptimal structure are written to stdout, one structure per line. Each line consist of: The structure in dot bracket format with a "&" separating the two strands. The ’<>’ brackets represent snoRNA intramolecular interactions, while the ’()’ brackets represent intermolecular interactions between the snoRNA and its target.
The range of the structure in the two sequences in the format "from,to : from,to"; the energy of duplex structure in kcal/mol. If available the opening energy are also returned.
Print help and exit
Print help, including all details and hidden options, and exit
Print version and exit
Below are command line options which alter the general input behavior of RNAsnoop
Limit the extent of the interactions to L nucleotides
Calculate the stem structure subject to constraints.
The program reads first the stem sequence, then a string containing constraints on the structure encoded with the symbols:
. (no constraint for this base)
| (the corresponding base has to be paired
x (the base is unpaired)
< (base i is paired with a base j>i)
> (base i is paired with a base j<i)
and matching brackets ( ) (base i pairs base j)
With the exception of "|", constraints will disallow all pairs conflicting with the constraint. This is usually sufficient to enforce the constraint, but occasionally a base may stay unpaired in spite of constraints. PF folding ignores constraints of type "|".
File containing the query sequence.
Input sequences can be given piped to RNAsnoop or given in a query file with the −s option. Note that the −s option implies that the −t option is also used
File containing the target sequence.
Input sequences can be given piped to RNAsnoop or given in a target file with the −t optionNote that the −t option implies that the −s option is also used
Specificy the suffix that was added by RNAup to the accessibility files
Specify the directory where accessibility profile generated by RNAplfold are found
Options which alter the computing behaviour of RNAplex. Please note that the options allowing to filter out snoRNA−RNA duplexes expect the energy to be given in decacal/mol instead of kcal/mol. A threshold of −2.8(kcal/mol) should be given as −280(decacal/mol)
Specify if RNAsnoop gets alignments or single sequences as input
Speedup of the target search (default=‘1’)
This option allows one to decide if the backtracking has to be done (−f 1) or not (−f 0). For −f 1 the structure is computed based on the standard energy model. This is the slowest mode of RNAsnoop. −f 0 is the fastest mode, as no structure are recomputed and only the interaction energy is returned
Cost to add to each nucleotide in a duplex (default=‘0’)
Cost of extending a duplex by one nucleotide. Allows one to find compact duplexes, having few/small bulges or interior loops. Only useful when no accessibility profiles are available. This option is disabled if accessibility profiles are used (−P option)
Minimal Right Duplex Energy
−l, −−minimal−loop−energy=INT Minimal Right Duplex Energy
Minimal Stem Loop Energy of the snoRNA. The energy should be given in decacalories, i.e. a minimal stem−loop energy of −2.8 kcal/mol corresponds to −280 decacal/mol
−p, −−minimal−left−duplex=INT Minimal Left Duplex Energy
Minimal Duplex Energy
Distance between target 3’ ends of two consecutive duplexes
Distance between the target 3’ends of two consecutive duplexes. Should be set to the maximal length of interaction to get good results. Smaller d leads to larger overlaps between consecutive duplexes
−h, −−minimal−stem−length=INT Minimal snoRNA stem length
−i, −−maximal−stem−length=INT Maximal snoRNA stem length
Minimal distance between the duplex end and the
Maximal distance between the duplex end and the
Minimal number of nucleotides between the
beginning of stem loop and
beginning of the snoRNA sequence
Maximal number of nucleotides between the
beginning of stem loop and
beginning of the snoRNA sequence
Minimal distance between duplex start and
Maximal distance between duplex start and
Minimal duplex stem energy
Minimal total energy
Maximal snoRNA stem asymmetry
Minimal lower stem energy
Options that modifies the output
Maximal energy difference between the mfe
the desired suboptimal
Energy range for a duplex to be returned. The threshold is set on the total energy of interaction, i.e. the hybridizationenergy corrected for opening energy if −a is set or the energy corrected by −c. If unset, only the mfe will be returned
Draw annotated 2D structures for a list of dot−bracket structures
This option allows one to produce interaction figures in PS−format with conservation/accessibility annotation, if available
−O, −−output_directory=STRING Set where the generated figures should be
Outputs 2D interactions concurrently with the interaction calculation for each suboptimal interaction. The −I option should be preferred.
Specify the directory where accessibility profiles generated by RNAup are found
If you use this program in your work you might want to cite:
R. Lorenz, S.H. Bernhart, C. Hoener zu Siederdissen, H. Tafer, C. Flamm, P.F. Stadler and I.L. Hofacker (2011), "ViennaRNA Package 2.0", Algorithms for Molecular Biology: 6:26
I.L. Hofacker, W. Fontana, P.F. Stadler, S. Bonhoeffer, M. Tacker, P. Schuster (1994), "Fast Folding and Comparison of RNA Secondary Structures", Monatshefte f. Chemie: 125, pp 167-188
R. Lorenz, I.L. Hofacker, P.F. Stadler (2016), "RNA folding with hard and soft constraints", Algorithms for Molecular Biology 11:1 pp 1-13
The calculation of duplex structure is based on dynamic programming algorithm originally developed by Rehmsmeier and in parallel by Hofacker.
H. Tafer, S. Kehr, J. Hertel, I.L. Hofacker, P.F. Stadler (2009), "RNAsnoop: efficient target prediction for H/ACA snoRNAs.", Bioinformatics: 26(5), pp 610-616
The energy parameters are taken from:
D.H. Mathews, M.D. Disney, D. Matthew, J.L. Childs, S.J. Schroeder, J. Susan, M. Zuker, D.H. Turner (2004), "Incorporating chemical modification constraints into a dynamic programming algorithm for prediction of RNA secondary structure", Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA: 101, pp 7287-7292
D.H Turner, D.H. Mathews (2009), "NNDB: The nearest neighbor parameter database for predicting stability of nucleic acid secondary structure", Nucleic Acids Research: 38, pp 280-282
Hakim Tafer, Ivo L. Hofacker
If in doubt our program is right, nature is at fault. Comments should be sent to firstname.lastname@example.org.